Several types of
connectors are in use:
1) Composite Video
2) VGA - A single cable with fifteen pins in three rows
3) RGB + H/V - Five cables with BNC connectors
4) Component Video - Three RCA Type connector
5) DVI - Special connector
6) Firewire - or (SB1394 - Soundblaster - Audigy Platinum)
7) S-video - A special video cable -
9) Fiber Optical Cable
The first type - Composite video
The second type - VGA
The third type- RGB + H/V - Five cables with BNC connectors
The fourth type -Component Video -Three wires with RCA - type connectors.
1) Green marking on shell - Y
2) Blue marking on shell - B-Y
3) Red marking on shell - R-Y
The fifth type DVI - Special connector
The sixth type - Firewire
Firewire-equipped devices be added to and removed from a (Sound Blaster Audigy
or Audigy 2 via the Firewire / 1394 / SB1394 connection without turning off a computer?
Yes. All Firewire-equipped devices are hot-swappable.
They can be added to and removed from a system without turning it off.
Firewire contacts as
mounted on any PC boards.
Two examples are shown, the first one is generally used on cameras where space is at a premium, and the larger size, that is used on a PC board in a computer They generaly have a high speed transfer rate; from 25 Mbytes to 60 Mbytes a second in the future. They are limited to a cable length of about 4.5 Meters and limited to 65 devices.
The seventh type - S-video
The eighth type
The ninth type - Fiber Optical cable
I have not mentioned the various types of power supply or hard drive connectors for the data transmission. There are several common types in use. The most common is the parallel-port class of conections. This ranges from the connection to a 3 1/2 " floppy disc, through the basic parallel-port connections to a hard disk drive. Then their is SCSI one, SCSI two and SCSI three. The oldest was SCSI one, that used a connector much similar to a printer connector. SCSI two and beyond used still higher density connectors.
Then serial-port hard disk drives began to be more common in 2002. Initially, the power-supply connectors were the familiar four-pole. With demands for higher density packaging, a special power-supply connector began to be used. This one was polarised with a rib/recess at one face. Some of these had problems that led to a change in the standards.
Then consider audio:
This can be two speakers set-up for Stereo -using two cables with RCA Type
or surround sound with this arrangement of speakers.
5.1 Channel surround sound - Left, Center and Right; all at the front +
Left rear and Right rear, or
6.1 Channel surround sound - Left, Center and Right; all at the front +
Left side, Right side, Center rear,or
7.1 Channel sorround sound - Left, Center and Right; all at the front +
Left side Right side +
Rear speaker (may be more than a single unit).
In all cases the (1) refers to the non-directional sub-woofer. This may consist of one speaker, or several.
Note: The connectors used in mixers, patch bays or microphones are not listed here!
All of these problems (except for the fibre optical cable) can be treated by the use of Stabilants:
There is no need to flood the connector, just apply it with a soft brush so that the contact surface is barely wet.
That is why we suggest that you start with a diluted form, such as Stabilant 22A or Stabilant 22E.
Stabilant 22 is an initially non-conductive block polymer which when used in a thin film between metal contacts becomes conductive under the effect of an electric field. This occurs at an electric field gradient such that the material will remain non-conductive between adjacent contacts in a multiple pin environment. In addition Stabilant 22 exhibits surfactant action as well as lubrication ability providing a simple component resident solution to virtually all contact problems.
When applied to electromechanical contacts, Stabilant 22 can provide the connection reliability of a soldered joint without bonding the contact surfaces.
Stabilant 22 can be used in all types of connectors, at frequencies from to DC to several Gigahertz, on faders or potentiometers, or in non-inductive (non-arcing power-interrupt switches. The number of uses are almost limitless.
No, Stabilant 22 is a resident potentially electrically active material which through synergistic combination of effects enhances conductivity within a contact without causing leakage between adjacent contacts. Thus large quantities of the material d not have to be "hosed" on as is the case with cleaners.
As Stabilant 22 can be quickly applied to all contacts and connectors in a system the often difficult diagnostic determination as to which one of many contacts are erratic, can often be eliminated. This can significantly reduce service time in the field and in many cases eliminates the need to return boards for shop service or re-manufacturing. As any service manager knows, the diagnosis of electronic problems especially where intermittent failures are concerned, is often much more difficult than the actual part replacement; as well as requiring service personnel of exception caliber. In many cases the use of Stabilants can thus increase the efficient( o existing staff as well as allowing many connector harness related problems to be handled at a much lower cost.
In many electronic applications demodulation (detection) of RF signals in connectors exhibiting thin-film rectification effects can either reduce the signal-to-noise ratio or introduce artifacts which can disrupt data flow. Stabilants can cure these.
While Stabilants have demonstrated that they can cut the cost of both shop and field maintenance; their use in the manufacturing of electronic systems can speed up production as well as reducing rejections.
Contact failure is rarely caused by a single factor. Thus, treatments that solve only one problem don't necessarily offer a reliable long term solution. For example, cleaners do not prevent the re-entry of contaminants or the reformation of contaminant films; nor do they offer any lubrication. They must be used each time a connector gets dirty. Lubricants in themselves are rarely cleaners. Corrosion inhibitors are neither cleaners nor lubricants and are often specific to one type of metal or plating. Unsaturated oils used as contact treatments can cross-link under the influence of elastomer or thermoset plastic curing agents and accelerants.
While resident in the connector, Stabilant 22 performs several concurrent functions. Its very presence in the contact gap will prevent the entry of outside contaminants. It has sufficient surfactant action to lift surface contaminants and hold them in suspension. In cases where corrosion products are present Stabilant 22 will penetrate them and prevent rectification effects. Due to its high dielectric constant it will act to form a capactive layer which is in parallel with whatever residual resistance exists in the contact increasing the passage of AC signals. Given sufficient DC bias within the gaps of the contact the thin film of Stabilant will "switch", conducting by quantum tunneling and thus limit the resistance of the contact to a serviceable level.
The Stabilants are available in several forms; as a concentrate (Stabilant 22) and as an isopropyl alcohol-diluted form (Stabilant 22A). In a similar fashion, we produce Stabilant 22E Because of the 4:1 dilution, a given size container of Stabilant 22A will cost about one-fifth the amount of a container of Stabilant 22 as it contains only one-fifth the amount of the concentrate.
Stabilant 22 is most useful where the connections are out in the open - such as card-edge connectors or where the lubricating properties of the material are useful such as an aid to installing microprocessor IC's or on switches. Where the connections are not too easy to get at or where the user wishes to apply the material to something such as a socketed IC (without removing the IC from its socket) it is easier to use the alcohol diluted form (Stabilant 22A or Stabilant 22E). The isopropyl alcohol diluant serves ONLY to carry the concentrate into the connector.
The Stabilants have proven to be very effective in improving the reliability of connectors in general and are developing a reputation for ease and speed of use under field conditions. Not only are many OEM's pre-treating sensor connectors during manufacture, many are providing the Stabilants to their service technicians either as Standard-Store items, or recommending them for field procurement.
The Stabilants are presently used in applications ranging from Avionics through Process control, including such critical fields as Bio-medical electronics, Air Traffic Control, Police & Emergencies (such as communications and the like).
The application of the Stabilants is exceptionally easy. Just use a drop of two o Stabilant 22A on one of the electrical or electronic sensor connectors, including an other in-signal-path connector in the wiring harness, and reconnect the system.
We can supply the concentrate (Stabilant 22) in 5 mL, 15mL, 5OmL, lOOmL, 250m 5OOmL and 1 Liter bottles. The dilute (Stabilant 22A) is available in 5OmL, 100m 25OmL and 5OOmL containers. We do not have a 1 liter container of the dilute as 500 mL is the largest size bottle that can be shipped by air (in single or multiple packages) without additional restrictions. We maintain our stock in depth, and ship most orders the same day they are received. The 15 mL and 50 mL sizes are in dropper bottles and these are available on request for the ) 0.5 mL sizes as well.
No. Why waste the material? We would like to think we are environmentally responsible and safety conscious. We use no CFCs, HCFC's or any other ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemical) either in or in the manufacture of Stabilants.
In addition even Stabilant 22A has only about 1/200th the solvent impact as conventional contact cleaning solvents over a three year time span. As Stabilant 22 contains no solvent it has absolutely minimal environmental impact and is, therefor becoming the treatment of choice for many service organizations!
Normally, a final film thickness of from 0.5 mils to 1 mils of the concentrate is all that is necessary. In other words, you want just enough to fill up the interstices between the contact's faces. When using Stabilant 22A, use enough so that once the alcohol evaporates the desired 1/2 to 1 mil film of Stabilant 22 remains.
In applications to moving surfaces, such as in slip-rings or potentiometers, film thickness should be minimized to the point where "hydroplaning" won't occur.
This was made up at the request of several manufacturers who wanted a standard kit that they could issue to their service personnel. It consists of a 15mL dropper bottle of Stabilant 22A and some applicators, all in a small capped cardboard tub that can be tossed into a tool box without damage.
In some field trial applications lasting over ten years Stabilant 22 has shown no sign of reduced effectiveness. With a high molecular weight and a very low vapor pressure, almost none of the material will be lost by evaporation. Unlike some other contact protection oils, Stabilant 22 will not cross-link when exposed to free-machining materials such as high sulfur brass, or when used on contacts where agents used to promote cross-linking of thermosets or elastomers are present in the environment or in the actual connector components. Thus Stabilant 22 does not form a scum or "varnish".
Stabilants are a product of Dayton Wright research & development and are made in Canada
NSCM/Cage Code - NATO Supply Code 38948
15 mL of S22A has NATO Part # 5999-21-900-6937
The Stabilants are patented in Canada - 1987; US Patent number 4696832. World-wide patents pending. Because the patents cover contacts treated with the material, a Point-of-sale License is granted with each sale of the material.
Stabilant, Stabilant 22, and product type variations thereof are Trade Marks of D.W. Electrochemicals Ltd.
© Copyright 2003 - D.W. Electrochemicals Ltd. This note may be reproduced or copied, provided its content is not altered. The term "contact enhancer", © 1983 Wright Electroacoustics.
NOTICE: This Application Note is based on customer-supplied information, and D.W. Electrochemicals is publishing it for information purposes only. In the event of a conflict between the instructions supplied by the manufacturer of the equipment on which the Stabilant material was used, and the service procedure employed by our customer, we recommend that the manufacturer be contacted to make sure that warranties will not be voided by the procedures.
While to our knowledge the information is accurate, prospective users of the material should determine the suitability of the Stabilant materials for their application by running their own tests. Neither D.W. Electrochemicals Ltd., their distributors, or their dealers assume any responsibility or liability for damages to equipment and/or any consequent damages, howsoever caused, based on the use of this information.
Stabilant, Stabilant 22, and product type variations thereof are Trade Marks of D.W Electrochemicals Ltd.